France’s ANJ puts player protection at the heart of new strategy

first_img Topics: Legal & compliance Compliance Regulation Regulation AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitter 2nd February 2021 | By Robin Harrison Regions: Western Europe France “The aim is to make ‘working together efficiently’ the common language of ANJ, by multiplying opportunities for exchanges and meetings, by introducing new forms of work organisation that are more […] empowering, but also by embodying the values of goodwill and conviviality on a daily basis,” the regulator explained. This process involve all of the regulator’s staff, as well as its board members, and was approved in December last year.  It sets out five key strategic focuses for 2021 to 2023, with a view to ensuring legal gambling provided significant returns for society, while ensuring players were protected from harm.  Further cooperation with regulators in other European jurisdictions will be another key element of ANJ’s focus going forward. It said collaboration and coordination with authorities in other markets needed to be improved, to fight criminal activity such as illegal gambling or money laundering.  Second, ANJ aims to place players at the heart of its regulatory actions. It noted that there are an estimated 1.4m problem gamblers in France, making it a key public health issue. This meant that it had to ensure operators fully implement new player protection measures, such as mandatory deposit limits, notified by the French government to the European Commission earlier this month.  “In order to be attuned to this world, ANJ must integrate this culture of innovation and digital technology, both with respect to the players it regulates and internally, in its operating mode and tools,” the regulator said.  ANJ will also look to build a progressive regulatory system, in which it is as creative in its approach to managing the sector as operators are in developing new products, promotional strategies and technology solutions.  The first goal is to add value to the gambling market, by providing a prescriptive regulatory framework that guides licensees’ behaviour, and provides effective deterrents for wrongdoing. By doing so, ANJ explained, it would help preserve the public image of legal gambling, and ensure that it remained a recreational past-time for customers.  France’s ANJ puts player protection at the heart of new strategy French gambling regulator L’Autorité nationale des jeux (ANJ) has set out a new, five-pillar strategy that will guide its approach to overseeing the market over the next three years. Email Address Finally, ANJ will look to encourage collaboration internally. It said an expanded brief, that goes beyond its predecessor L’Autorité nationale des jeux en ligne’s (ARJEL) online focus, meant that its teams’ workloads had increased significantly. This meant that different units within the regulator are to work closely together on projects going forward, it said.  Subscribe to the iGaming newsletter ANJ said work on the strategy had begun as soon as it was officially formed in June last year as the first authority with oversight for all forms of gambling in the country, including online gambling, casinos, betting on horse racing and lottery games.last_img read more

Vodacom Tanzania Limited (VODA.tz) 2018 Annual Report

first_imgVodacom Tanzania Limited (VODA.tz) listed on the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange under the Technology sector has released it’s 2018 annual report.For more information about Vodacom Tanzania Limited (VODA.tz) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Vodacom Tanzania Limited (VODA.tz) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Vodacom Tanzania Limited (VODA.tz)  2018 annual report.Company ProfileVodacom Tanzania Plc is a telecommunication company in Tanzania offering products and services ranging from voicemail, data and messaging to leased lines, PABX and international connectivity and remote satellite communication. Vodacom Tanzania also offers products and services for mobile banking, hosting, data storage, disaster recovery and security solutions. Vodacom Tanzania supports Vodacom M-Pesa, a financial app used to send money using a mobile phone; and Vodacom M-Pawa which allows customers to access savings and loan accounts. The company has active roaming agreements with global operators including T-Mobile USA Inc, Vodafone Limited (UK) and Vodafone Limited (India). Vodacom Tanzania Plc is a subsidiary of Vodacom Group Limited. Vodacom Tanzania Limited is listed on the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchangelast_img read more

Church of England’s first female bishop chosen for diocesan bishop…

first_img Rector/Priest in Charge (PT) Lisbon, ME Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Hires Reverend Kevin W. VanHook, II as Executive Director Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Rector Martinsville, VA Rector Tampa, FL Rector Shreveport, LA Anglican Communion Featured Events Priest Associate or Director of Adult Ministries Greenville, SC Church of England’s first female bishop chosen for diocesan bishop role Virtual Celebration of the Jerusalem Princess Basma Center Zoom Conversation June 19 @ 12 p.m. ET Ya no son extranjeros: Un diálogo acerca de inmigración Una conversación de Zoom June 22 @ 7 p.m. ET [Anglican Communion News Service] The first woman to be consecrated to the office of bishop in the Church of England, Libby Lane, is to become a diocesan bishop. Currently the suffragan bishop of Stockport in the Diocese of Chester – a role she has held since 2015 – Lane has been chosen as the next bishop of Derby. The bishop made history when she was consecrated in York Minster in January 2015. She will take up her new role after Easter 2019.Read the full article here. Rector Collierville, TN Tags This Summer’s Anti-Racism Training Online Course (Diocese of New Jersey) June 18-July 16 Assistant/Associate Priest Scottsdale, AZ Rector Washington, DC Director of Administration & Finance Atlanta, GA The Church Investment Group Commends the Taskforce on the Theology of Money on its report, The Theology of Money and Investing as Doing Theology Church Investment Group New Berrigan Book With Episcopal Roots Cascade Books Rector Belleville, IL Rector Hopkinsville, KY Episcopal Migration Ministries’ Virtual Prayer Vigil for World Refugee Day Facebook Live Prayer Vigil June 20 @ 7 p.m. ET In-person Retreat: Thanksgiving Trinity Retreat Center (West Cornwall, CT) Nov. 24-28 Canon for Family Ministry Jackson, MS Rector Pittsburgh, PA Assistant/Associate Rector Morristown, NJ Associate Rector for Family Ministries Anchorage, AK Cathedral Dean Boise, ID Seminary of the Southwest announces appointment of two new full time faculty members Seminary of the Southwest Rector Bath, NC Family Ministry Coordinator Baton Rouge, LA Press Release Service TryTank Experimental Lab and York St. John University of England Launch Survey to Study the Impact of Covid-19 on the Episcopal Church TryTank Experimental Lab AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to PrintFriendlyPrintFriendlyShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailShare to MoreAddThis Rector Albany, NY Director of Music Morristown, NJ Posted Dec 18, 2018 Featured Jobs & Calls Youth Minister Lorton, VA Associate Rector Columbus, GA Join the Episcopal Diocese of Texas in Celebrating the Pauli Murray Feast Online Worship Service June 27 Rector Smithfield, NC Inaugural Diocesan Feast Day Celebrating Juneteenth San Francisco, CA (and livestream) June 19 @ 2 p.m. PT Rector (FT or PT) Indian River, MI Submit a Press Release Course Director Jerusalem, Israel Rector Knoxville, TN Bishop Diocesan Springfield, IL Priest-in-Charge Lebanon, OH Associate Priest for Pastoral Care New York, NY Assistant/Associate Rector Washington, DC Submit a Job Listing Remember Holy Land Christians on Jerusalem Sunday, June 20 American Friends of the Episcopal Diocese of Jerusalem Curate (Associate & Priest-in-Charge) Traverse City, MI An Evening with Presiding Bishop Curry and Iconographer Kelly Latimore Episcopal Migration Ministries via Zoom June 23 @ 6 p.m. ET Missioner for Disaster Resilience Sacramento, CA Curate Diocese of Nebraska Submit an Event Listing Rector and Chaplain Eugene, OR The Church Pension Fund Invests $20 Million in Impact Investment Fund Designed to Preserve Workforce Housing Communities Nationwide Church Pension Group last_img read more

Salisbury Cathedral opens as vaccination site — with a soundtrack…

first_img Seminary of the Southwest announces appointment of two new full time faculty members Seminary of the Southwest Rector Smithfield, NC An Evening with Presiding Bishop Curry and Iconographer Kelly Latimore Episcopal Migration Ministries via Zoom June 23 @ 6 p.m. ET Rector Bath, NC By Marie ThomasPosted Jan 21, 2021 Rector Belleville, IL Assistant/Associate Rector Morristown, NJ Featured Events New Berrigan Book With Episcopal Roots Cascade Books Priest Associate or Director of Adult Ministries Greenville, SC This Summer’s Anti-Racism Training Online Course (Diocese of New Jersey) June 18-July 16 Episcopal Migration Ministries’ Virtual Prayer Vigil for World Refugee Day Facebook Live Prayer Vigil June 20 @ 7 p.m. ET Rector Hopkinsville, KY Rector Martinsville, VA Submit an Event Listing Rector Collierville, TN Church of England, Curate Diocese of Nebraska Salisbury Cathedral opens as vaccination site — with a soundtrack of organ music COVID-19 Cathedral Dean Boise, ID Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Hires Reverend Kevin W. VanHook, II as Executive Director Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Bishop Diocesan Springfield, IL Rector Albany, NY Rector Shreveport, LA AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to PrintFriendlyPrintFriendlyShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailShare to MoreAddThis TryTank Experimental Lab and York St. John University of England Launch Survey to Study the Impact of Covid-19 on the Episcopal Church TryTank Experimental Lab Director of Administration & Finance Atlanta, GA Ya no son extranjeros: Un diálogo acerca de inmigración Una conversación de Zoom June 22 @ 7 p.m. ET In-person Retreat: Thanksgiving Trinity Retreat Center (West Cornwall, CT) Nov. 24-28 Canon for Family Ministry Jackson, MS Associate Rector for Family Ministries Anchorage, AK center_img Inaugural Diocesan Feast Day Celebrating Juneteenth San Francisco, CA (and livestream) June 19 @ 2 p.m. PT Tags Join the Episcopal Diocese of Texas in Celebrating the Pauli Murray Feast Online Worship Service June 27 Associate Priest for Pastoral Care New York, NY Priest-in-Charge Lebanon, OH Rector Knoxville, TN Associate Rector Columbus, GA Family Ministry Coordinator Baton Rouge, LA Rector and Chaplain Eugene, OR Assistant/Associate Rector Washington, DC The Church Investment Group Commends the Taskforce on the Theology of Money on its report, The Theology of Money and Investing as Doing Theology Church Investment Group Rector Washington, DC Director of Music Morristown, NJ Missioner for Disaster Resilience Sacramento, CA Submit a Press Release Press Release Service Youth Minister Lorton, VA Rector/Priest in Charge (PT) Lisbon, ME Virtual Celebration of the Jerusalem Princess Basma Center Zoom Conversation June 19 @ 12 p.m. ET Remember Holy Land Christians on Jerusalem Sunday, June 20 American Friends of the Episcopal Diocese of Jerusalem Curate (Associate & Priest-in-Charge) Traverse City, MI Assistant/Associate Priest Scottsdale, AZ Submit a Job Listing The Church Pension Fund Invests $20 Million in Impact Investment Fund Designed to Preserve Workforce Housing Communities Nationwide Church Pension Group Rector Tampa, FL Course Director Jerusalem, Israel Featured Jobs & Calls Rector Pittsburgh, PA Rector (FT or PT) Indian River, MI People receive COVID-19 vaccines inside Salisbury Cathedral in January 2021. Photo: Salisbury Cathedral[Salisbury Cathedral] On Jan. 16, Salisbury Cathedral in England opened its doors for the first time as a venue for the Sarum South Primary Care Network COVID-19 Local Vaccination Service.Scores of over senior citizens came along to have their first COVID-19 shot – and all done to the sound of music. The cathedral’s organists, director of music David Halls and assistant director of music John Challenger, played soothing sounds to those waiting for, or recovering from, their shots and clocked up around 10 hours on the keyboards (with a few essential breaks).Read the entire article here.last_img read more

Herringbone Houses / Alison Brooks Architects

first_imgShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/154/herringbone-houses-alison-brooks-architects Clipboard Projects Houses CopyAbout this officeAlison Brooks ArchitectsOfficeFollowProductsWoodGlassSteel#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesWoodLondonHousesBuilding Technology and MaterialsUnited KingdomPublished on May 02, 2008Cite: “Herringbone Houses / Alison Brooks Architects” 02 May 2008. ArchDaily. Accessed 12 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Read commentsBrowse the CatalogPanels / Prefabricated AssembliesTechnowoodPanel Façade SystemSynthetics / AsphaltMitrexSolar RoofMetal PanelsAurubisPatinated Copper: Nordic Green/Blue/Turquoise/SpecialLinoleum / Vinyl / Epoxy / UrethaneTerrazzo & MarbleTerrazzo Flooring – Terroxy Resin SystemsMetal PanelsTrimoMetal Panel Finishes – ArtMePanels / Prefabricated AssembliesIsland Exterior FabricatorsMega-Panel Facade SystemsStonesCosentinoSurfaces – Silestone® Iconic SeriesBricksFeldhaus KlinkerFacing Bricks – Waterstruck VascuWallcovering / CladdingLinvisibileLinvisibile Boiserie and Skirting Systems | OrizzonteMetal PanelsRHEINZINKPanel Systems – Horizontal PanelDoorsJansenFire Doors – Janisol 2 EI30 70 mmSlabs / Plates / SheetsMetadecorMetal Facade Blade – MD LamelMore products »Read commentsSave世界上最受欢迎的建筑网站现已推出你的母语版本!想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users.Go to my stream “COPY” ArchDaily ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/154/herringbone-houses-alison-brooks-architects Clipboard Save this picture!+ 33 Sharecenter_img Architects: {:text=>”Alison Brooks, Michael Woodford”, :url=>””}; Architects: Alison Brooks, Michael WoodfordText description provided by the architects. The Herringbone Houses are two 400sqm houses and integrated landscape located in a wooded back land site overlooking the South London Bowls Club for private developer Lyford Investments.Each open-plan house is composed of two continuous planes of herringbone timber and graphite render surfaces that form walls, floors, external decking and fences. These planes interlock and fold inward at the centre of the house to create a double height entrance hall open to the sky. This approach to the wrapping of spaces generates an apparent lightness to the houses which are conceived as an assembly of planar elements as opposed to “punched” masonry. The atrium holds a suspended timber staircase and galleries which lead to the first and second floor bedrooms. Each house has a two car carport that has been integrated into the design of the house, fence and landscape with pebbled roofs on expanded metal trays supported by stainless steel ‘picture frames’. Save this picture!Recommended ProductsWoodEGGERWood-based materials in EGGER HeadquartersWoodHESS TIMBERTimber – GLT HybridWoodBlumer LehmannFree Form Structures for Wood ProjectsMetallicsSculptformClick-on Battens in Ivanhoe ApartmentsThe 3 storey 5 bedroom houses have full basements with storage, guest accommodation and a games room. The ground floor is conceived as an open plan living, family and kitchen area wrapped around a central double height hall open to the sky with a 3x2m roof light. The hall is a double height atrium at the centre of the house with a sculptural oak staircase hanging in the middle of the space. The first floor bedrooms are accessed from a gallery space and library with a balcony offering views down into the living space. The three principle bedrooms are on the west facing façade with large windows that maximise passive solar gain and offer fantastic views out over the bowling green. All of the bedrooms have windows on both sides to allow natural ventilation of the spaces and maximise the light and views. The living rooms are recessed behind deep overhangs that provide shade, direct views to the south-east and shelter the ground floor entrance areas. Adjacent to these are the three storey volumes oriented north south, containing bedrooms and family rooms. These elements also have recessed glazing at the 2nd floor level to reduce solar gain, increase a sense of privacy for the occupants and create space for greenery at the buildings’ upper levels. Save this picture!The ground floor living spaces have been designed in order to create a free flowing space from inside to outside with level thresholds opening out to generous terraces. Save this picture!The house is constructed from a steel frame with timber infill that has been wrapped in plywood sheathing. This acts as a substrate for the insulation and cladding. The herringbone cladding was initially developed and set out using 3d modelling software to establish the dimension of each board and to test the final visual effect. After trials with different lengths of board and widths it was decided to us a thin board profile (50mm) and that the boards should be 800mm long, a dimension that worked functionally for the construction and fitted into the structural levels of the house. The cladding is essentially a traditional open weatherboard construction. The house is initially wrapped in Tyvek breather paper over the rigid insulation. Battens were set out at 800mm horizontal centres and the IPE cladding was all pre-cut to 800mm lengths with pre-drilled holes to speed up the installation and accuracy of the construction process. At our request the contractor constructed a 1:1 mock-up to test the construction of the façade and each stage of the installation was signed off by the architects before proceeding. Save this picture!This enabled us to maintain a tight control over the building finish. Following the installation of the boards each board was pelleted and sanded before sign off. Across the façade all materials – timber, render and glass are in the same plane. This was done to further enhance the abstract planar quality of the façade. The windows sit on steel angles and are strapped back to the window heads and jams, meaning that they can be positioned flush with the timber, like holes cut out of in a thin surface. Save this picture!Given the automation of the process and simplicity of the traditional construction method this delicate and refined façade took no longer and cost no more than a standard horizontal weatherboarding system. Yet the result is a distinctive façade with an optical ‘accordion’ effect and with the refinement of a piece of renaissance marquetry.Project gallerySee allShow lessBryghusgrunden mixed use, Copenhagen / OMAArticlesIn Progress: Contemporary Jewish Museum by Daniel LibeskindArticles Share CopyHouses•London, United Kingdom Herringbone Houses / Alison Brooks ArchitectsSave this projectSaveHerringbone Houses / Alison Brooks Architects United Kingdom “COPY” Herringbone Houses / Alison Brooks Architectslast_img read more

Housing Complex Niigata / Studio Takuya Hosokai + Hirose Archi…

first_img Area:  2767 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project CopyAbout this officeHirose ArchitectsOfficeFollowStudio Takuya HosokaiOfficeFollow#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousingApartmentsNiigataHousingJapanPublished on September 30, 2013Cite: “Housing Complex Niigata / Studio Takuya Hosokai + Hirose Architects” 30 Sep 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Browse the CatalogPartitionsSkyfoldChoosing the Skyfold Wall for Your SpaceGlass3MGlass Finish – FASARA™ GeometricShower ColumnshansgroheShoulder ShowersPanels / Prefabricated AssembliesMorin Corp.Metal Wall Systems – ExposedStonesCosentinoSurfaces – Dekton® Stonika SeriesConcrete FloorsSikaIndustrial Floor CoatingsHanging LampsLouis PoulsenPendant Lights – KeglenDoorsSky-FrameInsulated Sliding Doors – Sky-Frame SlopeThermalSchöckMinimizing Thermal Bridges in BalconiesWindowspanoramah!®ah! Ultra MinimalistEnclosures / Double Skin FacadesAlucoilStructural Honeycomb Panels – LarcoreWork ChairsDynamobelWork Chair – SLAT 16More products »Save世界上最受欢迎的建筑网站现已推出你的母语版本!想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users.Go to my stream Japan Architects: Hirose Architects, Studio Takuya Hosokai Area Area of this architecture project Photographs:  Naomichi SodeSave this picture!© Naomichi SodeRecommended ProductsEnclosures / Double Skin FacadesIsland Exterior FabricatorsCurtain Wall Facade SystemsEnclosures / Double Skin FacadesFranken-SchotterFacade System –  LINEAEnclosures / Double Skin FacadesRodecaRound Facade at Omnisport Arena ApeldoornEnclosures / Double Skin FacadesAlucoilStructural Honeycomb Panels – LarcoreText description provided by the architects. Noh, a traditional, Japanese performance art, serves as the main inspiration for the architectural concept. The performance of Noh is heavily reliant upon the use of delicately carved masks. Although at first these masks may appear to present a neutral expression they are formed in such a way as to convey a broad emotional spectrum. Through subtle changes in the actor’s movement and variances in lighting the masks are brought to life. A similar dialogue exists between built form and seasonal and daily changes to the sun’s altitude, weather patterns and fluctuations in atmospheric conditions. This temporal cycle conspires to continuously transform and direct light and shadows, generating a form of architectural expression.Save this picture!© Naomichi SodeThis is a 56 dwelling housing complex located in Niigata, Japan. It sits along a main road, close to the central station and at the end of a busy T-junction. Due to its scale Niigata is a typical motorized society. It lacks a metro system and therefore private vehicles are a prevalent mode of transport. In response, we utilised piloti as a means to maximise the number of parking spaces. The piloti serve a dual purpose; not only adopted by the architectural plan they also contribute to the structural stability of the building.Save this picture!© Naomichi SodeThe configuration of the facade has not been informed by arbitrary decisions but instead determined by the efficiency and practicality of evacuation routes, service piping and to allow for re-use of the formwork, amongst other requirements. The glass, chosen for its thermal properties, reflects the surrounding cityscape and integrates the façade within its environment. The virtual sky, reflected on the glass, creates a sensation of depth and porosity. Combined with the open ground floor this affects the perception of the building’s volume, its mass is reduced as it balances on the slender piloti.Save this picture!© Naomichi SodeTypically masks cover the entire face to conceal ones personality, to transform oneself into someone else. However, in Noh, masks only partially cover the face thus revealing the jaw of a living man. This human aspect is permitted to further express the age, personality and sensibility of the actors. In this fashion, the architectural facade exudes the lives of its inhabitants; it is animated by the chaos living within its ordered structure. The personalities incorporated in the architecture will gradually be rewritten and inherited. This architecture will grow with its occupants; the façade, continuously manipulated by natural phenomenon, is a Noh mask which is activated by the changing seasons.Save this picture!SectionProject gallerySee allShow lessLight Matters: 3D Video Mapping, Making Architecture The Screen for Our Urban StoriesArticlesIs there a Future for India’s Stepwells?MiscProject locationAddress:Niigata, Niigata Prefecture, JapanLocation to be used only as a reference. It could indicate city/country but not exact address. Share Housing Complex Niigata / Studio Takuya Hosokai + Hirose Architects “COPY” Projects ArchDaily Apartments “COPY” Housing Complex Niigata / Studio Takuya Hosokai + Hirose ArchitectsSave this projectSaveHousing Complex Niigata / Studio Takuya Hosokai + Hirose Architects CopyApartments•Niigata, Japan 2013 ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/432418/housing-complex-niigata-takuyahosokai-hirose-architects Clipboard Save this picture!© Naomichi Sode+ 24 Share ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/432418/housing-complex-niigata-takuyahosokai-hirose-architects Clipboard Year:  Photographslast_img read more

Chatter app lets celebs auction FaceTime chats for charity

first_imgChatter app lets celebs auction FaceTime chats for charity Advertisement An app that offers people the chance to FaceTime with celebrities to raise funds for charity has launched in the US and is looking to partner with charities in the UK. Chatter launched in the States earlier this year, and celebrities currently involved include Leonardo DiCaprio, Drake and Shaquille O’Neal.The app lets celebrities auction five minutes of one-to-one FaceTime with them for a charity of their choice. To talk to a celebrity one-to-one for five minutes, people can either enter a draw by buying a raffle ticket for $1 with one person chosen at random to win the chat, or bid auction-style, with the highest bidder winning the FaceTime chat.The app can be downloaded free from the Apple App Store, and UK charities interested in partnering with Chatter should contact Pasha King at [email protected]  181 total views,  5 views today Melanie May | 5 October 2016 | News Tagged with: app Celebrity Fundraising ideascenter_img AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis12 About Melanie May Melanie May is a journalist and copywriter specialising in writing both for and about the charity and marketing services sectors since 2001. She can be reached via www.thepurplepim.com.  182 total views,  6 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis12last_img read more

Hard times are fighting times: Why and how we must win the South

first_imgThe following document was prepared by members of the Durham, N.C., branch of Workers World Party and updated on April 8, 2014.  The goal of this document is to help inform discussion at the March 29th Hard Times Are Fighting Times Conference on Socialism by placing current anti-racist struggles in the U.S. South and the U.S. labor movement in the context of historic national oppression and previous setbacks in the South. The goal is to avoid past mistakes and build greater unity in and between the anti-racist and union movements. To accomplish this we will first lay out some of the key historical points of the last 150 years, followed by an analysis of recent developments, and finally a few suggestions for a perspective for the coming period.The unique importance of the U.S. SouthThe U.S. South has a dual character. It is primarily a region of the United States, the biggest imperialist power in the world and the greatest threat to humanity today. At the same time, however, the U.S. South has a unique history within the United States, with a different pattern of development rooted in slavery, and as such it is part of the Global South — characterized by colonialism, exploitation by imperialist powers, and national oppression. This contradictory character is both what makes this region pivotal to revolutionaries seeking ultimately to overthrow capitalism and what has frustrated previous attempts to organize workers in the region.The role of the South — as a crucial component of modern U.S. imperialism — cannot be discounted. The School of the Americas in Ft. Benning, Ga., has trained death squads and right-wing militaries that have terrorized Latin America for decades.North Carolina itself is home to two of the largest military bases in the world. Fort Bragg is the biggest U.S. Army base in the world, home to the Special Forces Command, the U.S. Army Airborne Command and the Army Reserve Command — the biggest concentration of generals outside the Pentagon, which is itself in the South (Virginia). Camp LeJeune is the largest U.S. Marine base in the world. Other crucial U.S. bases — too many to list here — are also concentrated in the South. Notable ones include Fort Jackson U.S. Army, Fort Hood Army Base, Parris Island Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Shaw Air Force Base, Pope AFB, Langley AFB, Marine Corps Base Quantico, Fort Hill Army Base, and Norfolk Naval Base.These bases are located in the South for at least two reasons. First, this region has historically developed many U.S. military leaders going back to the Civil War, when many of the top military generals joined the Confederacy, as well as many military leaders of U.S. imperialism in the 20th century. Some of the worst offenders include Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels from North Carolina, who directed the invasion and occupation of Haiti in 1915, and General William Westmoreland, who became infamous during the Vietnam War.  Southern leaders also led imperialist interventions in Mexico, Cuba, Honduras, the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and others. Second, the concentration of bases in the South is due to its proximity to Latin America and the Caribbean and the perpetual threat of U.S. aggression to the Global South.Building a movement that is visible in this stronghold of U.S. imperialism is necessary not only to show solidarity with the victims of U.S. military aggression around the world, but in the long term to organize GIs within the military.Economic concentration as well as militaryNot only is the South the center of U.S. military power, it is increasingly becoming a manufacturing center for U.S. capitalism. While it is still underdeveloped with respect to the rest of the country, it is now home to 30 percent of the manufacturing in the United States, a percentage which is growing due to both run-away shops from the more unionized North and direct foreign investment in new manufacturing. The South now receives 43 percent of all direct foreign investment in the U.S. Toyota, Honda, BMW, Nissan, Hyundai, Mercedes, and Volkswagen all have extensive operations in the South, concentrated in Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, and South Carolina. These same states are similarly increasingly home-to-domestic steel production.The new manufacturing in the South is not only due to the racist anti-union laws that depress wages, but also the result of billions of dollars in incentives from states and cities that were forced to compete for the investments. These huge corporate giveaways drained the budgets needed to pay public workers and the money needed for housing, education, and infrastructure which was already severely underdeveloped. This makes the South even more vulnerable to human-created and natural disasters such as Hurricanes Floyd, Rita, and Katrina. States are also competing by removing any environmental protections, allowing fracking, and other practices that increase the risk of these disasters.Much has been said in the capitalist press recognizing the importance to the labor movement of organizing these new manufacturing plants, especially in the context of the recent loss at the Volkswagen plant in Tennessee, but it is more important to understand why that happened. Comrades should carefully review Martha Grevatt’s Feb. 20 article in Workers World, “Volkswagen workers lost. Why?” except to say that an understanding of the history of the South — especially the inextricable links among national oppression, anti-unionism, and anti-communism — is at the center of it.At the same time that manufacturing and foreign investment are increasing in the South, it is also emerging as a center of banking and finance capital, as characteristic of imperialism. In other parts of the Global South, imperialists locate production and steal natural resources, but keep finance capital at home. As part of the imperialist U.S., as well as part of the Global South, the U.S. South is also increasingly a center of finance capital, especially Charlotte, N.C., which is now the second largest banking center in the U.S., trailing only New York. Charlotte is the headquarters of Bank of America and the East Coast headquarters of Wells Fargo. Many other major capitalist conglomerates such as Nucor Steel, Duke Energy, Chiquita, and Time Warner Cable are also located there. Southern organizers began to mobilize directly against the banks in 2012 with the March on Wall Street South and the demonstrations at the BofA shareholders’ meeting. Increasingly Farm Labor Organizing Committee (FLOC) and other unions are directly targeting the banks as well.The Civil War and Reconstruction: An unfinished revolution for African AmericansMonica Moorehead’s introduction to “A Voice from Harper’s Ferry” should be required reading for any revolutionary or organizer in the U.S. South. There is no need to repeat all of her analysis, but a few points are crucial to understanding where we are now. First, she states that the Civil War was not primarily a war for the liberation of slaves: “It was a class war between two different exploiting classes,” the semi-feudal slaveocracy and the emerging industrial capitalist class of the North. Furthermore the defeat of the confederacy was a military defeat only; the capitalists did not “uproot every vestige of slavery,” which “deter[ed] a transition from a reactionary feudal period to a bourgeois democracy in the South, at least as far as the Black masses were concerned.” In short, freed Black workers were left without the bourgeois democratic rights of other U.S. workers, especially whites — rights often essential to organizing and building political power.During the period of Reconstruction, the Black masses and their white allies made substantial gains toward full legal equality, enacting statutes and constitutional amendments that in some cases were even better than those won through struggle in the Civil Rights movement a century later. Contrary to popular history, these gains were not gifts of a benevolent government. The entire second half of the 19th century was characterized by struggle, often armed struggle, across the South. In North Carolina, Henry Berry Lowery, a Native American leader, led a guerrilla band of freed slaves, Native Americans, and poor whites against the “Home Guard” — the remnants of the Confederacy. When Black workers and white Republicans were able to win control of state governments, they were opposed by armed white supremacist militias: the Ku Klux Klan, the “Red Shirts” in North Carolina, and the “White League” in Louisiana.By the turn of the century Black workers were abandoned entirely by the federal government and the Northern bourgeoisie. Southern white supremacists were left with free reign to strip all democratic rights and impose the apartheid Jim Crow regime. In 1898 in Wilmington, N.C., hundreds of Black leaders were killed in a coup by the white supremacist Democratic Party which took control of the local government. At the same time Klan violence and intimidation, combined with new laws known as the “Black Codes, stripped Blacks of the right to vote and enforced segregation.Continuing role of the state perpetuates racism and national oppressionThe use of state repressive power to enforce racial apartheid is not a historical feature, but ongoing structural racism that has adapted its form to modern conditions still serves the same function. The modern prison-industrial complex, especially in the South, is directly rooted in slavery and Jim Crow. North Carolina’s Central Prison was commissioned by the state in 1868 directly after the Civil War, as were prisons across the South. This new penal system, built with slave labor, emerged as a new tool for the oppression of former slaves.The same system of state violence continues today where the police and the racist courts are the primary tool of racial oppression. The racist death penalty is concentrated in Southern states, especially Texas. So-called “stand-your-ground” laws attempting to legitimize the murder of unarmed Black youth started in the South and are spreading. Police murders of people of color are rampant, notably the murders of Jesus Huerta and Jonathan Ferrell here in North Carolina.Organizing against this racist state and vigilante violence often originates in the South, spreading across the country as in the cases of the Jena 6, Troy Davis, and Trayvon Martin. These movements have attracted more energy, especially among young oppressed workers, than any other movements in recent years. As has been done so successfully in Baltimore, the vehicle of people’s assemblies can unite these movements with workers’ struggles.Industrialization and organizing in the SouthJim Crow emerged just as class consciousness was growing in the rest of the country and socialism was gaining in popularity, but Jim Crow was triumphant. Black workers, former slaves, and sharecroppers fled north in the Great Migration, fleeing poverty, segregation, and Klan terrorism. The bosses attempted to use these new workers to cut wages and undermine organizing drives, playing on the racism of white workers. This tactic has been the primary weapon of U.S. imperialism ever since. The effect was similar to the abolition of the commons in England, driving farmers off their land and bolstering capitalism by supplying needed workers and undermining wages.At the same time, in the process characteristic of modern imperialism, capitalists began moving manufacturing to the South to avoid organized labor, beginning with the textile industry. Huge mills opened across North Carolina, quickly becoming the dominant industry. For the first time communists recognized the critical importance of organizing the South and that it could only be done on the basis of complete anti-racist solidarity. The Communist Party sent organizers to Gastonia, N.C., in the late 1920s, leading to the largest strike in the state’s history that included both Black and white workers, even though the mills were entirely segregated. Similar efforts were undertaken across the South, especially in Alabama among steelworkers, mine workers, and sharecroppers. Ultimately most of these efforts failed due to the racism of Southern whites.This pattern has continued with every organizing effort in the South, which began with the unsuccessful Knights of Labor in the 1880s who endorsed segregation. In 1940, an organizing drive was successful at Reynolds Tobacco Company among the majority Black and women work force, but it was turned back by the racism of the federal courts, which cut Black workers out of the bargaining unit and added white supervisors, breaking the union.After World War II, the last major effort of the Congress of Industrial Organizations was Operation Dixie from 1946 to 1953 — an effort by the more radical of the two national union federations to organize the South. The entire U.S. capitalist class united with Southern white supremacists. The campaign was ultimately defeated by a combination of white supremacy, the anti-communist red scare, and the Taft-Hartley Act, which allowed states to ban strikes and closed union shops. This defeat led directly to a right-wing shift in the labor movement overall, as the CIO was forced to merge with the American Federation of Labor and abandon social unionism in a shift toward business unionism.In 1959, in the early stages of the mass Civil Rights movement that swept the South, North Carolina enacted its last major piece of racist apartheid legislation of the Jim Crow era — a ban on collective bargaining for public workers. As low-wage public workers were disproportionately Black and women workers, this attack on public workers was a racist and sexist attack by the state. Subsequently Virginia passed a similar ban. Because they were successful in the South, the bosses are now expanding this attack across formerly strong union states like Michigan and Wisconsin, which triggered an historic fightback in 2011.This history suggests only two paths that have been repeatedly argued about at least since the Gastonia strike. Either the labor movement can engage in a cowardly attempt to avoid the history of slavery and national oppression and ignore racism, in order to avoid falling victim to the prejudice of Southern whites, or it can take the only path to victory: recognize that a struggle against racism is essential to working-class solidarity and the only hope to organize the South.The changing character of the working classAs Sam Marcy, a founder and chairperson of Workers World Party, noted 30 years ago in his seminal work, High Tech, Low Pay, the social character of the U.S. working class is increasingly women workers and workers of oppressed nationalities in service sector industries. Nowhere is this more true than in the U.S. South, as the preceding history shows. African-American and women workers have always been the largest percentage of semi-skilled workers, and now Latino/a workers make up huge numbers. Latino/a workers are growing as a percentage of the workforce faster in the South than in any other region of the U.S. The states with the fastest growing Latino/a population from 2000 to 2010 were all in the South: South Carolina, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Arkansas, and North Carolina, with Maryland, Mississippi, Georgia, and Virginia close behind.As of 2010, women make up almost half of North Carolina’s workforce, similar to that in other Southern states, which continues to increase, while the percentage of men in the workforce is decreasing. Women workers are paid significantly less for the same positions. While they are actually more likely than men to hold college and advanced degrees, women make up a much smaller fraction of professional and managerial positions.  They are also much more likely to have only part-time work.The South is also of critical importance to the struggle for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer liberation. Despite the fact that LGBTQ workers have always made up large proportions of the working class, and are increasingly coming out and self-organizing, Southern states perpetuate reactionary and anti-gay legislation that is even worse than that seen in the rest of the country.While courts in other states are being pressured to recognize same-sex marriage — most recently in Ohio — not a single Southern state has done so. In fact in 2012 North Carolina became the last state to enact a constitutional amendment against same-sex marriage. Activists flooded into North Carolina in 2012 and worked alongside local organizations to defeat the amendment.  While they were defeated by the right-wing, they left a legacy of resistance that continues to inspire the LGBTQ liberation movement in the South.This changing social character of the working class in the South has profound implications for the movement.Laying the foundation for uniting the anti-racist and labor movementsIn the last 15 years two unions in North Carolina have shown the way toward the necessary anti-racist approach to organizing in the South. In 1997 the United Electrical Workers came to North Carolina at the request of Black Workers for Justice to help organize Black workers at the Consolidated Diesel plant in Rocky Mount and surrounding plants. This organizing expanded to majority Black low-wage public workers in cities, state facilities, and universities with the founding of UE Local 150 in 1999.From the beginning UE-150 and BWFJ’s focus has not been on traditional card-check organizing drives, which have too often led to unions pulling out and abandoning workers after a defeat. Instead the focus has been on building workers’  direct power over working conditions with community and labor solidarity, especially around fighting racism in the workplace, which has led to deep roots in communities across the state. Similarly, beginning with the Mt. Olive Pickle campaign in 1998, FLOC has successfully organized thousands of migrant Latino/a agricultural workers by engaging a broad base of community supporters around not just workplace issues but broader questions of immigrant rights.Learning from these examples, the United Food and Commercial Workers successfully won a contract at the Smithfield plant, the largest pork processing plant in the world in 2009 after a 16-year struggle. The UFCW at times waivered on questions of immigrant rights but ultimately did not abandon the struggle and took the necessary patient, long-term view, uniting Black and Latino/a workers.This approach is now evident in the Service Employees’ fast food worker campaign, which is gaining traction across the South. Organizers are focusing on building community solidarity and workplace actions, rather than short-term card check campaigns. Pushing this movement in an explicitly anti-racist direction and building independent leadership among workers and the community are our most pressing tasks. It is noteworthy that FLOC workers, UE-150 workers, and Smithfield workers all make less than $15 an hour. We must encourage them to identify with the “low-wage” workers struggle as their leadership will be essential to its success.Jackson, Moral Mondays, and the Southern Workers AssemblyAs the economic crisis continues and millions of workers remain unemployed, we know that low-wage capitalism is not a passing phenomenon. Instead the anti-labor policies of the South, with their inherent racism, are being spread North to formerly industrialized and organized states. At the same time, Black leaders in the South are spearheading a new Civil Rights movement, but one that may prove stronger than the old because the conditions of the economic crisis are making the anti-racist struggle inseparable from union struggles and all struggles for social justice.In some ways the economic crisis for our class began with Black and rural workers in the South, who were decimated by the North American Free Trade Agreement and subsequent “free trade” agreements. North Carolina lost 370,250 manufacturing jobs from 1993 to 2009, and 170,000 textile and apparel jobs between 1997 and 2002. Most of these jobs were in small towns in the Black Belt of North Carolina. Any minimal job growth during that period was in the finance and technological centers of the Research Triangle and Charlotte among a predominantly white work force, which reinforced historic racial divides. Now even those jobs are being lost and wages are being cut. IBM announced another massive round of layoffs in the Research Triangle in February.Understanding the Moral Monday fightback, now spreading from North Carolina across the South, should begin with Saladin Muhammad’s article, “Moral Mondays: The Emergence and Dynamics of a Growing Mass Human Rights Movement.” In it he lays out the roots of Moral Mondays in a 2007 People’s Assembly and in NAACP President Rev. William Barber’s solidarity with UE-150. The people’s assembly program with its 14-point agenda combines labor and Civil Rights demands with opposition to imperialist war and the need for social programs for the unemployed. This year’s historic march of 80,000 workers in Raleigh on Feb. 9 was significant not only because of its mass size and draw from across the South, but even more so because of the large turnouts from labor unions, the youth and student movement, and the environmental justice movement under Black leadership.In Jackson, Mississippi, a people’s assembly movement led to the historic election of Chokwe Lumumba as mayor, whose recent death was a severe blow to our class, but whose success reflects the power of the people’s assembly process. Continued attention to the developments in Jackson will be necessary in the coming months to ensure that the tragic death of Lumumba does not result in a major political setback and to continue to push the assemblies to deeper engagement around workers’ struggles.The Southern Workers Assembly represents a united effort of activists and revolutionaries with BWFJ, FLOC, UE-150, the fast food worker organizing committee, and the UFCW Smithfield local to build a people’s assembly in the South, which not only unites these labor forces but also acts as a conscious independent section in the Moral Monday movement.People’s assemblies are of special importance in the South because of the possibility of using them to overcome the racism and other forms of oppression that have fractured and defeated prior organizing. First, they can build a revolutionary pole within the labor movement and an independent structure that is not beholden to the Democratic Party nor dependent on the funding of international unions that may withdraw their support. Second, and even more importantly, the assemblies provide a forum for the type of patient explanation and discussion that is necessary to win over white workers to the leadership of the most oppressed, to allow all workers to understand the similarities of their situations that transcend industries and nationalities, and to build the ongoing relationships necessary for a protracted struggle.Build the Southern Workers Assembly and All People’s Assemblies!Organize the South!Long Live the People’s Struggle!FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thislast_img read more

Where is Kenya’s Field Marshal Kimathi buried?

first_imgField Marshal Kimathi ‘smonument in Nairobi.The British ruling class has lavished millions to rebury King Richard III, who was killed 530 years ago. Almost $3 million was spent on the tomb alone. (The Telegraph, March 22)Yet British colonialism still refuses to reveal where the body of Field Marshal Dedan Kimathi is buried. Kimathi, a leader of Kenya’s Land and Freedom Army, was hanged on Feb. 18, 1957.Being captured with a loaded revolver was enough to send this African freedom fighter to the gallows.Queen Victoria’s storm troopers seized Kenya in 1895. Aristocrats stole the land with Lord Delamere alone grabbing 160,000 acres.Africans were forced at gunpoint into “native reserves,” which were modeled on Indian reservations in the United States.Oppression sparked resistance. When 8,000 Africans rallied in Nairobi on March 14, 1922, to protest the exiling of African leader Harry Thuku, police opened fire.White settlers standing on the Norfolk Hotel’s porch joined in the shooting. Fifty-eight Africans were murdered.The East African Trade Union Congress was founded on May 1, 1949. The average yearly wage of African workers in Kenya was then $73.On May Day in 1950, the EATUC issued a call for independence and majority rule. These genuine labor leaders in Kenya were immediately arrested by British Prime Minister Clement Attlee of the “Labour Party.”One hundred thousand workers joined a general strike to protest. Nairobi was paralyzed for nine days. It took a mobilization of the British army and colonial police to crush this uprising.Freedom demanded that an armed struggle be launched. Kenya’s Land and Freedom Army was born.Kenya’s colonial governor, Evelyn Baring, responded by declaring a state of emergency on Oct. 20, 1952. The governor’s family controlled Barings Bank, founded in 1762 by the slave trader Francis Baring. Baring himself was named a baron in 1960.Media helped lynch freedom fightersShakespeare’s play, “Richard III,” probably slandered this king. That’s not surprising since Queen Elizabeth I — a member of the Tudor family gang that wasted Richard’s Plantagenet family and seized the throne — was then ruling England.But Shakespeare’s slanders were nothing in comparison with the world capitalist media lies against freedom fighters in Kenya, who were labeled “Mau Mau.”Sixty years ago, the media called Jomo Kenyatta, who later became the leader of independent Kenya, a “terrorist.” His son, Uhuru Kenyatta, is Kenya’s current president.Baring ordered the colonial police to frame up Jomo Kenyatta and other independence fighters and imprison them. There was no jury.According to Caroline Elkins’ Pulitzer Prize winning book, “Imperial Reckoning,” Baring guaranteed a conviction by paying the judge a 20,000 pound bribe.Baring hoped Kenyatta’s frame-up would demoralize Africans. It ignited years of guerrilla warfare instead.Mau Mau fighters liberated weapons and ammunition from the colonialist army and police. Mau Mau-supporting blacksmiths made hundreds of guns.Britain mobilized 55,000 soldiers and cops to fight the Mau Mau. The Royal Air Force bombed guerrilla strongholds in Aberdares Forest and Kirinyaga.Caroline Elkins estimated that the colonial forces threw 300,000 Kenyans into concentration camps and forced another million into 800 “emergency villages” built with the Africans’ own slave labor.For Africans in Kenya, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was their Hitler. Guards used Alsatian dogs to maul women inmates at the Athi River camp, and the guards themselves clubbed prisoners arriving at the Manyani camp.Six hundred children were confined in Kamati camp alone. Almost none survived.Prisoners labeled as “hard-core Mau Mau” were selected to bury the children. “They would be tied in bundles of six babies,” recalled former inmate Helen Macharia.Uncle Sam helped this genocide by financing Nairobi’s Embakasi Airport. Now called Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, it was built by the slave labor of Mau Mau prisoners.According to David Anderson’s “Histories of the Hanged,” 1,090 Africans were hanged in Kenya during this righteous uprising. Just for supplying food to guerrilla fighters — labeled “consorting” — the British settlers sent 207 people to their deaths.A posse led by Ian Henderson, a notorious torturer of Mau Mau suspects, finally captured Field Marshal Kimathi on Oct. 21, 1956. Henderson’s cruelty couldn’t stop the freedom struggle.Twenty thousand Mau Mau guerrillas didn’t die in vain. Kenya declared its independence on Dec. 12, 1963.Henderson later spent 30 well-paid years as head of Bahrain’s secret police. On June 3, 1997, anti-war leader and British Parliament member George Galloway told the House of Commons that Henderson was a war criminal.Mau Mau veterans filed a suit in 2006 against the British government for reparations, charging it with systematic torture of Kenyan freedom fighters.Africa remembers its heroes. Kimathi’s execution is commemorated and streets are named in his honor. A statue of Dedan Kimathi was unveiled in Nairobi on Dec. 11, 2006.When Nelson Mandela visited Kenya, he asked to see where Field Marshal Dedan Kimathi was buried.But the British imperialists still refuse to reveal this hero’s burial site.FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thislast_img read more

U.S. and Afghanistan: The cynical abuse of ‘women’s rights’

first_imgThis article, originally published in 2007 in Workers World’s “Lavender & Red” series, exposes an Islamophobic argument hidden under the cloak of “human rights” and “women’s rights” as propaganda used by imperialists to justify military aggression. Under a deal signed with the Taliban by the Trump administration last year, the U.S. promised to pull all its troops out of Afghanistan by May 1. President Biden now implies the U.S. may not meet that deadline, and the false argument of “women’s rights” is again being revived to justify U.S. occupation. See Feinberg’s entire historic series on the deep interconnections between socialism and LGBTQ liberation at workers.org/lavender-red/.The U.S. did not unleash war on Afghanistan in 2001 to “liberate” women. But pro-war spin doctors — embedded with the corporate media — went into overdrive to create that impression after 9/11. Public relations campaigns “sold” as liberation a high-tech imperialist war against an impoverished country with no air force.This was designed to obscure the fact that imperialism had no right to violate Afghanistan’s self-determination and sovereignty.The New York Times offered a more candid geopolitical view as early as Jan. 18, 1996, in an article entitled “The New Great Game in Asia” — referring to the 19th-century struggle among capitalist powers to control the Eurasian landmass and the warm-water ports of the Persian Gulf.The Times explained, “While few have noticed, Central Asia has again emerged as a murky battleground among big powers engaged in an old and rough geopolitical game. Western experts believe that the largely untapped oil and natural gas riches of the Caspian Sea countries could make that region the Persian Gulf of the next century. The object of the revived game is to befriend leaders of the former Soviet republics controlling the oil, while neutralizing Russian suspicions and devising secure alternative pipeline routes to world markets.”After overturning the bloc of workers’ states in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, U.S. finance capital schemed to secure ownership of trillions of dollars worth of buried oil and gas treasure in the Caspian Sea region, which had for decades been collectively owned by the workers and peoples of the region.Transnational energy giants like Unocal and Enron saw Afghanistan as the best path to pipe oil and gas from Central Asia to the world market.The Bush neo-cons, Pentagon brass and the military-industrial complex worked overtime to frame this as a campaign for women’s rights.Laura Bush delivered the presidential radio address on Nov. 16, 2001 — a month after the Pentagon assault on Afghanistan began. Her speech focused on women’s rights in that country: “The fight against terrorism is also a fight for the rights and dignity of women.” It was a total lie.Afghan Revolution advanced women’s rightsAn article in Workers World on Oct. 10, 1996, by Deirdre Griswold showed how a progressive revolution in Afghanistan in 1978 had taken measures to liberate women and challenge centuries of landlordism. In response, the U.S. pulled together an army of pro-feudal elements to crush that revolutionary government, forcing it to call on the USSR for support.The WW article quoted from a 1986 Department of Defense publication titled “Afghanistan — a Country Study.” Even this Pentagon book had to admit that the 1978 revolution brought many gains to Afghan women and girls.Women were organized in the Democratic Women’s Organization of Afghanistan. The national group was founded in 1965 by Dr. Anahita Ratebzada. Her companion Babrak Karmal, who founded the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan the same year, later became the country’s president.One of the first actions of the revolution was to end “bride-price” and allow women to make marriage choices. Punishment of women who had sex outside of marriage was prohibited. Women could choose to wear or not to wear the veil, travel in public, get an education and work at a job. Women of all classes — not just the well-to-do — were trained as doctors, teachers and lawyers.Brigades of women and other young Afghans brought medical care to rural peasants.The revolution impacted the life of one-third of the rural population — landless peasants, sharecroppers and tenants held in virtual bondage to landlords and moneylenders.Before the revolution, 5 percent of the landlords claimed ownership of more than 45 percent of the country’s arable land. “When the PDPA took power,” the Pentagon report noted, “it quickly moved to remove both landownership inequalities and usury.” One of the revolutionary land reforms was the cancellation of mortgage debt for agricultural laborers, tenants and small landowners.On the eve of the revolution, 96.3 percent of the women of Afghanistan were illiterate; rural illiteracy for all the sexes was 90.5 percent. The progressive government created massive literacy programs and printed textbooks in Dari, Pashtu, Uzbek, Turkic and Baluchi.The 1986 Pentagon report stated, “The government trained many more teachers, built additional schools and kindergartens, and instituted nurseries for orphans.”The Washington Post admitted that Afghan women were the strongest supporters of the 1978 revolution.But this revolution was crushed by a well-funded, well-armed counterrevolution in which U.S. imperialism made common cause with feudal patriarchs. Women were then bought and sold as property once again.National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski and former CIA Director Robert M. Gates later publicly bragged that, beginning in early 1979, the CIA had funneled money and arms to counterrevolutionary groups, many of them members of militias loyal to local landowners.Democrats and Republicans had approved at least $8 billion for this counterrevolutionary effort that hired, armed and trained the Taliban, Osama bin Laden and other forces.CIA historian John Ranelagh recalls that then President Jimmy Carter OK’d “more secret operations than Reagan later did.” Carter later admitted in his memoirs that his administration actually considered the use of tactical nuclear weapons against the progressive developments in Afghanistan.U.S. set women’s rights back centuriesBy 1992 the Soviet Union was overturned and the progressive government in Afghanistan was defeated by imperialism. After four years of internecine struggle among different Afghan factions, the Taliban came to power.Michael Meacher, a senior Labor Party member of Parliament who had been a member of British Prime Minister Tony Blair’s cabinet, observed in a Sept. 6, 2003, article in the Guardian of London: “Until July 2001 the U.S. government saw the Taliban regime as a source of stability in Central Asia that would enable the construction of hydrocarbon pipelines from the oil and gas fields in Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, through Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the Indian Ocean.“But confronted with the Taliban’s refusal to accept U.S. conditions, the U.S. representatives told them ‘either you accept our offer of a carpet of gold, or we bury you under a carpet of bombs.’”Washington then took advantage of the attacks on Sept. 11, 2001, to launch an invasion of Afghanistan.U.S. occupiers appointed former Unocal advisors to be both the titular president of Afghanistan and the U.S. ambassador to the country.The continuing imperialist blitzkrieg has destroyed the land’s infrastructure — including potable water, sewage and electricity — worsening hunger and disease. Soviet-built public urban housing complexes and schools lie in ruins.These conditions create suffering for all sexes, genders and sexualities in Afghanistan, particularly for women. [According to the World Health Organization,] in 2004, some provinces reported 1,120 maternal deaths for every 100,000 live births. (tinyurl.com/yus8cdm9)Pentagon Special Forces commandos can kick in the door of a home at any hour of the day or night, body search Afghan women and their loved ones, and drag them all off in hoods to torture chambers.That’s imperialist-style “liberation.”Research by Minnie Bruce Pratt contributed to the original article.The late Leslie Feinberg was a managing editor of Workers World newspaper and the first theorist to advance a Marxist concept of trans liberation in the groundbreaking “Transgender Warriors: Making History.” (Beacon Press, 1996) Feinberg also authored the now-classic novel, “Stone Butch Blues” (1993), available as free digital download at www.lesliefeinberg.net.FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thislast_img read more